the HOB Astro Enthusiast AUT20 –
Our Celestial Twinity, a Hypothetical Star name Nemesis.
Life, as Human knows it, can only exist in dense, high Gravity environments. Outside of this comfort zone, nothing. Not so long ago, well another world ago to be more accurate, we published a RAW (here) about SOFIA and this bird finding, pledge to keep this bird up and flying, and SOFIA may have a Digital future after all, consequently, the HOB Astro Enthusiast have shifted interests, and what better aim but the LSST, with a ‘prediction’ (we mean it happened before) that the LSST will provide a new vision, in technical terms the LSST will deliver what it was build for, but what we mean here is that that this equipment will provide new observability, a new plane of contemplation.
Until it first broadcasted image somewhere in 2021, the Astro Enthusiasts are celebrating Autumn with Our Sun, a late Season start (23rd September 2020), and the Star that animate this system is yet to shape out Our very Human future. About the Sun, proofs being observable on a day to day basis, and a recurring question, does this Star have a Twin Star! Welcome to the HOB Autumn 2020, Astro Enthusiast, Our Sun Twinity./here//
/ in order of what causes effects, our universe comes first, than our galaxy the milky way, than our neighboring stars and finally our ow star the sun, so after centuries of observations we come to a logical conclusion, that it is all interlinked with plasma and electromagnetic fluxes, but for us present time we had to find a closer from home causes, and the most realistic reason is, the Sun, and Our Star supposed Twin Star, /
“Binary systems are far more efficient at capturing objects than are single stars,” co-author Avi Loeb said in the statement. “If the Oort cloud formed as observed, it would imply that the Sun did in fact have a companion of similar mass that was lost before the Sun left its birth cluster.” The theory could also have sweeping implications of how Life came to be on Earth.
“Objects in the outer Oort Cloud may have played important roles in Earth’s history, such as possibly delivering water to Earth and causing the extinction of the dinosaurs,” said Siraj./here//
,could it be that Our Star have a Will of its own
You can not ignore what you don’t know, to be able to ignore is to know by Intellect, Intuition or Emotion, Our Astro Time(s), this Time(s) is Universal, Cosmos Integrale a subjective action triggering a reaction no longer in the reach of the ignorant or the savant, we are bound to Our Will, we have lost our universal innocence.
We should be happy if the time comes to accept that we are closer than ever to the Human Beings with the ‘vision’ of what Human beings will be permutated into. The reference is not just historical or biological record base, religion in its most simplistic way and a certain universal ‘spirituality’ in our current time comes to the rescue when we contemplate that we are not so much the ‘descendents’ of our so called ancestors, but morelikely an emancipation of what they was aiming at being, and this time it could very well mean that a new dimension of consciousness could be attain, the dimension of conscious universal memories, the quality of existing in the realm of the physical universal Time(s) Space, in real time, a journey into the Catatonic Celestial Orchestra!
This new finding does lend weight to the idea of periodicity in FRB 121102’s emissions, but the exact details of its cycle are still hazy. By combining data from several studies, the team suggests that its cycle actually runs for 156.1 days, with the source active for 99 of those days. Following this new schedule, the team predicts that the object should “turn off” again around August 31 to September 9./here//
Nearby supernova explosions shape the interstellar medium. Ejecta, containing fresh nucleosynthetic products, may traverse the solar system as a transient passage, or alternatively the solar system may traverse local clouds that may represent isolated remnants of supernova explosions. Such scenarios may modulate the galactic cosmic-ray flux intensity to which Earth is exposed. Varying conditions of the traversed interstellar medium could have impacts on climate and can be imprinted in the terrestrial geological record. Some radionuclides, such as 60Fe, are not produced on Earth or within the solar system in significant quantities. Their existence in deep-sea sediments demonstrates recent production in close-by supernova explosions with a continued influx of 60Fe until today./here//
The strongest gravitational waves are produced by cataclysmic events such as colliding black holes, supernovae (massive stars exploding at the end of their lifetimes), and colliding neutron stars. Other waves are predicted to be caused by the rotation of neutron stars that are not perfect spheres, and possibly even the remnants of gravitational radiation created by the big bang/here//
In the Time(s) of Excursion
So many questions. Too many answers. And one reality, unfolding in front of Our Eyes, one blink at a time. As it appear, Our Star ‘twinity’ is not to be doubted, and its affect and effect on Our Star, Past Present or Future, will have to be considered for what it is, another Celestial Hazard in the Existence of ‘the Human Beings’. Ultimately, this interaction takes Us to the generally understood as the lower layers of Celestial Mechanism, in this case, the interaction of Our Star, the Sun, with Earth, and comes with it so many questions, and too many answers.
We review evidence for correlations which could suggest such (causal or non-causal) connections at various time scales (recent secular variation ∼ 10–100 yr, historical and archeomagnetic change ∼ 100–5000 yr, and excursions and reversals ∼ 103–106 yr), and attempt to suggest mechanisms. Evidence for correlations, which invoke Milankovic forcing in the core, either directly or through changes in ice distribution and moments of inertia of the Earth, is still tenuous. Correlation between decadal changes in amplitude of geomagnetic variations of external origin, solar irradiance and global temperature is stronger. It suggests that solar irradiance could have been a major forcing function of climate until the mid-1980s, when “anomalous” warming becomes apparent. The most intriguing feature may be the recently proposed archeomagnetic jerks, i.e. fairly abrupt (∼ 100 yr long) geomagnetic field variations found at irregular intervals over the past few millennia, using the archeological record from Europe to the Middle East. These seem to correlate with significant climatic events in the eastern North Atlantic region. A proposed mechanism involves variations in the geometry of the geomagnetic field (f.i. tilt of the dipole to lower latitudes), resulting in enhanced cosmic-ray induced nucleation of clouds. No forcing factor, be it changes in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere or changes in cosmic ray flux modulated by solar activity and geomagnetism, or possibly other factors, can at present be neglected or shown to be the overwhelming single driver of climate change in past centuries. Intensive data acquisition is required to further probe indications that the Earth’s and Sun’s magnetic fields may have significant bearing on climate change at certain time scales./here//
a raw paper on star twins? Why now?
//A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter. Systems of two or more stars are called multiple star systems. These systems, especially when more distant, often appear to the unaided eye as a single point of light, and are then revealed as multiple by other means.//
The term double star is often used synonymously with binary star; however, double star can also mean optical double star. Optical doubles are so called because the two stars appear close together in the sky as seen from the Earth; they are almost on the same line of sight. Nevertheless, their “doubleness” depends only on this optical effect; the stars themselves are distant from one another and share no physical connection. A double star can be revealed as optical by means of differences in their parallax measurements, proper motions, or radial velocities. Most known double stars have not been studied adequately to determine whether they are optical doubles or doubles physically bound through gravitation into a multiple star system.
/Groups have been devoting time and resources to the idea,
a vast amount of theories documented, and little if no interest from the public./
Binary star systems are very important in astrophysics because calculations of their orbits allow the masses of their component stars to be directly determined, which in turn allows other stellar parameters, such as radius and density, to be indirectly estimated. This also determines an empirical mass-luminosity relationship (MLR) from which the masses of single stars can be estimated.
Binary stars are often resolved as separate stars, in which case they are called visual binaries. Many visual binaries have long orbital periods of several centuries or millennia and therefore have orbits which are uncertain or poorly known. They may also be detected by indirect techniques, such as spectroscopy (spectroscopic binaries) or astrometry (astrometric binaries). If a binary star happens to orbit in a plane along our line of sight, its components will eclipse and transit each other; these pairs are called eclipsing binaries, or, together with other binaries that change brightness as they orbit, photometric binaries.
If components in binary star systems are close enough they can gravitationally distort their mutual outer stellar atmospheres. In some cases, these close binary systems can exchange mass, which may bring their evolution to stages that single stars cannot attain. Examples of binaries are Sirius, and Cygnus X-1 (Cygnus X-1 being a well-known black hole). Binary stars are also common as the nuclei of many planetary nebulae, and are the progenitors of both novae and type Ia supernovae./here//
The Sun does not vary in brightness over the course of a year. Rather, the effective sunlight at any place on the surface of the Earth changes over the year. Because the axis of the Earth is tilted with respect to the perpendicular to the plane of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, different points on the surface of the Earth receive more, or less, sunlight at different times of the year.
Here is a figure which shows what we mean by this. The small yellow dot shows the Sun (not drawn to scale, of course!) in the middle of the solar system. The black dashed circle shows the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, and arrows show the direction in which the Earth rotates on its own axis once a day, and revolves around the Sun once a year. This is an almost circular orbit; it appears elliptical in the figure because we are looking at the system almost edge-on (as if we were standing on Jupiter) rather than face-on (as if we stood above the Sun). The Earth has been drawn at four points along its orbit; you can see that the axis is tilted 23 (23.5, to be precise) degrees over from the vertical (straight up). These four points represent the peak of winter (December), spring (March), summer (June), and of autumn (September), in the northern hemisphere./here//
Nemesis! a Word?, a Name?, a Star?
Nemesis was a hypothetical red dwarf or brown dwarf, originally postulated in 1984 to be orbiting the Sun at a distance of about 95,000 AU (1.5 light-years), somewhat beyond the Oort cloud, to explain a perceived cycle of mass extinctions in the geological record, which seem to occur more often at intervals of 26 million years. As of 2012, more than 1800 brown dwarfs have been identified. There are actually fewer brown dwarfs in our cosmic neighborhood than previously thought. Rather than one star for every brown dwarf, there may be as many as six stars for every brown dwarf. The majority of solar-type stars are single. The previous idea stated half or perhaps most stellar systems were binary, trinary, or multiple-star systems associated with clusters of stars, rather than the single-star systems that tend to be seen most often. In a 2017 paper, Sarah Sadavoy and Steven Stahler argued that the Sun was likely part of a binary system at the time of its formation, leading them to suggest “there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago”. Such a star would have separated from this binary system over four billion years ago, meaning it could not be responsible for the more recent perceived cycle of mass extinctions, Douglas Vakoch told Business Insider, adding that “If the sun really was part of a binary star system in its early days, its early twin deserves a benign name like Companion, rather than the threatening Nemesis…/here//
The most distant region of our solar system, a sphere of dark, icy debris out beyond Neptune, is too crowded. All that stuff out there, beyond the reach of the ancient disk of gas and dust that formed the planets, doesn’t match with scientific models of how the solar system formed. Now, a pair of researchers has offered a new take on this far-out mystery: Our sun has a long-lost twin. And the two stars spent their childhoods collecting the passing debris from interstellar space, crowding the outer reaches of the solar system.
We can’t see this twin. Wherever it is — if it ever existed — it broke away from its orbit with our sun eons ago. The two stars would have circled the Milky Way well over a dozen times since then, and may have ended up in totally different regions of space. But a record of that lost twin’s influence on our solar system may remain in our Oort cloud — a mysterious neighborhood of comets and space rocks at the outer bounds of our sun’s influence./here//
Our Neptunian Sun Time.
On July 12, 2011, Neptune arrived at the same location in space where it was discovered nearly 165 years ago. To commemorate the event, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope has taken these “anniversary pictures” of the giant blue-green planet.
Neptune is the most distant major planet in our solar system. German astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet on September 23, 1846. At the time, the discovery doubled the size of the known solar system. The planet is 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from the Sun, 30 times farther than Earth. Under the Sun’s weak pull at that distance, Neptune plods along in its huge orbit, slowly completing one revolution approximately every 165 years./here//
Binary stars are two stars orbiting a common center of mass. The brighter star is officially classified as the primary star, while the dimmer of the two is the secondary (classified as A and B respectively). In cases where the stars are of equal brightness, the designation given by the discoverer is respected.
Binary pairs can be classified based on their orbit. Wide binaries are stars that have orbits that keep them spread apart from one another. These stars evolve separately, with very little impact from their companions. They may have once contained a third star, which booted the distant companion outward while eventually having been ejected themselves. Close binaries, on the other hand, evolve nearby, able to transfer their mass from one to the other. The primaries of some close binaries consume the material from their companion, sometimes exerting a gravitational force strong enough to pull the smaller star in completely. – /here//
The discovery of the new TNO was made possible by RECON, a collection of 56 observation stations stretching from Yuma, Arizona, to Orville, Washington. The NSF-funded project provides each station with an array of observation equipment, including 11-inch telescopes. High school teachers are trained by Leiva, Buie and Fiske Planetarium Director Dr. John Keller to operate the stations and observe occultations so they can then teach students how to make the same observations. RECON has seen several students go on to do research related to their observations in college.
“To me this project is citizen science at its best,” Buie said. “They’re learning as well as making observations and helping to collect data. If they didn’t do this, we wouldn’t learn about these objects.”
RECON stations are commonly placed in small communities along an ideal line, from the southern to the northern border of the United States, for observation of stellar occultations. Eight additional stations were established in Canada in 2018 by colleagues of Leiva and Buie.
Going forward, Leiva and Buie will continue to search for previously unobserved TNOs, with the aim of discovering whether close binaries are common or unusual in our Solar System./here//
All Stars are Born in a Twinity
A: Yes, planetary systems can exist in binary star systems. As of July 2019, astronomers have found 97 planetary systems containing 143 planets around binary stars. These planets may orbit just one of the stars in the binary system, called an S-type (satellite-type) orbit, or they can orbit both stars together from outside the binary, called a circumbinary or P-type (planet-type) orbit. Most of the known planets in binary systems have S-type orbits, in which they orbit close to one star and essentially ignore the companion star, which is farther away.
When you search and never find, look closer. But closer may means proximity, next door, or in simple terms, not far at all.
The new assertion is based on a radio survey of a giant molecular cloud filled with recently formed stars in the constellation Perseus, and a mathematical model that can explain the Perseus observations only if all sunlike stars are born with a companion.
“We are saying, yes, there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago,” said co-author Steven Stahler, a UC Berkeley research astronomer.
“We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries. These systems then either shrink or break apart within a million years.”/here//
Our Star, the Sun, have been the center of many contemplation and is interlinked with Humanity History. The existence or not of a Twin Star to Our Sun may have been written or seen over the course of this history, in no ways this can be comparable with the now of Time(s). This time on Earth is no exception either, in course of great geomagnetic changes, and an ever growing Human curiosity, We are now rediscovering the Natural attribute of Our nearby Star and its affects & effects on Human Being. If it’s Twin Celestial companion has, is or will be a part of Our Future is unknown, but if so, greater changes will have to be faced by this Humanity, and a memory will be build for the Civilization to come to know, that once a Humanity stand in face of its Future, with nothing but suppositions and theories to face it.
the HOB Astro Enthusiast AUT20 –
Our Celestial Twinity, a Hypothetical Star name Nemesis.